Natural raw stones and minerals
Natural raw minerals are the largest group in our e-shop. We constantly complement our offer and try to expand. Our intention has always been and is to bring (and not only) to the Czech market minerals and precious stones that are not so easily accessible. Natural beauty has many forms and we would like to spread these gifts among you. If you didn't find what you were looking for, don't hesitate to contact us.
Adular (lunar stone) is a variety of orthoclase mineral from the feldspar group. Thanks to its composition - alternating layers of orthoclase and albite minerals - an optical phenomenon called "adularescence" (or Shiller) is created when the light falls, making Adula so well known and highly valued.
Adular was named after his discovery, the Adul mountain range in Switzerland. But the most beautiful moonstones come from Sri Lanka, Tanzania and also Madagascar.
Adular has been used in jewelery for thousands of years - records have been preserved since ancient civilizations. E.g. the ancient Greeks and Romans admired and worshiped the lunar stone because they believed it was made of the rays of the moon and connected it with the moon deities.
The Moonstone has also become popular during the Art Nouveau period, when the most jewelry with this gem began to emerge. Even today jewelers and jewelers are very popular and interest in it is constantly growing.
Most often, they are cut into cabochons to excel the beauty of adularescence.
Very rare is the so-called "cat eye" effect in adular.
Agate (from Greek agates) is a mineral whose name derives from the historical name of the Achates River (now Dirillo) in Sicily. It is a concentrically fine and coarse layered variety of chalcedony (quartz). Strictly speaking, agate is not a mineral but a mixture of strips of quartz, chalcedony and opal. A characteristic, eye-visible feature of agate is the colorfulness; the most common colors are white-gray, pale blue, orange-red and black. On the Mohs hardness scale it has a hardness degree of 6-7. We know several varieties of agate such as pseudoachate, moss agate (dendritic texture), coral agate, ruined agate, lightning agate and others. In the middle of the agate there are sometimes cavities usually filled with amethyst crystals, smoky quartz, calcite or zeolites. The resulting coloration of the agate then depends on the amount of so-called inclusions of other minerals or admixtures of other elements in the structure. Some agates can also be dyed artificially - it has already been done in ancient Greece and Rome. Individual characteristic drawings of stones then have their own names.
Aquamarine is a hexa-mineral, beryllium aluminosilicate (chemical formula Be3Al2Si6O18). The name of the mineral is derived from the Latin aqua marina (sea water).
Aquamarine is a variety of beryl. It is light blue to green-blue. It is used as a gemstone in the jewelery industry, most often faceted, possibly also in the shape of cabochons. The world's aquamarine sites include Brazil (Minas Gerais), USA, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Namibia, and more.
In ancient legends, aquamarine was most often associated with the goddess of the sea, Amphitrite, who was the wife of Poseidon, and also with the goddess Aphrodite, which was rumored to have been born of sea foam. Another legend says that aquamarine comes from the treasury of mythical mermaids. Obviously, since then, aquamarine has been considered a seafaring stone for good luck.
Amethyst is a variety of quartz of various shades of violet, with a hardness of 7 Mohs scale. Amethyst is among the precious stones, it is a popular material for making various ornaments and jewelry. It is mainly found in the cavities of alkaline rocks (geodes). Amethyst has a color from soft purple to purple. Some amethysts are transparent, others only translucent, others opaque, so-called opaque. They are very popular because of their color. As a jewel, amethyst has been meaningful since ancient times. Amethyst beads are known from the ancient cultures of Mohendzhokar, Egypt, Sumer and Baktria civilizations in Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Since the beginning of history, amethyst has been used in jewelry, and it has been cut with Sumerian and Mesopotamian sealing rollers, and especially with ancient (Greek and Roman) gems. Also in European jewelry and glyptics, amethyst has been widely used since the Middle Ages to the present day, famous for the bowls and jugs of the court artists of Charles IV, or dishes from the workshops of the Miseroni family who worked in Prague-Bubeneč for Emperor Rudolf II. and his court.
ANGELIT is a trade name for the variety ANHYDRITE, most often light-blue or blue-gray to gray. It comes from Peru and is one of the favorite semi-precious stones.
As such, anhydrite (CaSO4 - calcium sulfate) is a rhombic mineral. The name comes from the Greek anhydros - anhydrous, as unlike gypsum does not contain water. Natural occurrence is in the vast majority of sedimentary origin, belongs to the so-called evapority (as well as gypsum, halite, sylvin and others). Hydrothermal - forms tailings in ore veins, post-volcanic - from volcanic gases (fumaroles) and magmatic. They form crystals, fibrous, spherical, fine-grained to whole aggregates, pseudomorphoses. The crystals have the shape of prismatic tables (the areas are grooved), twins.
Aragonite (calcium carbonate) is formed under low-temperature and surface conditions, it is a late mineral of hydrothermal deposits and epithermal veins, and is abundant on thermal springs and geysers. It is formed by decomposition of calcium basalt and its lava by autohydration. It is present in sediments or is present as a component of stalactites. They form short or long prismatic crystals, columnar or filamentous crystals, they are stellar, pizolitic (pea) or whitebry (aggregate) aggregates. Twin adhesions are known, and the intergression of three crystals is rarely known, resulting in a pseudohexagonal appearance. Colors are white, gray, yellow-white, greenish, reddish, yellow-white, bluish, violet, also colorless. It is transparent to translucent, pleochroism is unknown, it is thermoluminescent. White or colorless scratch. Glass gloss on crystal surfaces, pitch on quarry surfaces.
Astrophyllite is an energy-efficient stone that shines the light of your mind and soul. This beautiful crystal will help you love and appreciate yourself. Astrophyllith also helps you to cope more easily with the difficult situations in your life and helps you reconcile with the things that have happened to your life yet and which you have not yet managed to deal with, things that are still heavy and troublesome for you.
Astrophyllith is often referred to as "Stone of Marriage" because it promotes loyalty, truth, and total sincerity among partners in the relationship. It is a "calm and honest" stone that brings knowledge to your life and helps you make the vital living changes you have hitherto defended yourself. And since astrophyllith is literally the stone of light, its light and pure energy will be a sort of "light" on your life.
Astrophyllite creates star-shaped aggregates that have also given this stone the name. The name astrophylit comes from Greek, consisting of two words: astron, meaning "star" and phyllon, which means "leaf". Astrophyllite is a soft and brittle mineral with a hardness of 3-4 on the Mohs scale. It was first discovered in 1854 in Norway.
Although it is relatively affordable on the market, astrophyllith is a relatively rare stone because it is found only in a few places in the world, especially in the Colombian peninsula in Russia. Apart from Russia, there are only a few locations in Canada (Qubec Province), the USA (Colorado), Norway and Greenland.
Astrophyllite is found in shades of golden yellow, bronze or even copper. Indeed, unique pieces sometimes have a flash of blue color. Astrophyllite is unbelievably beautiful in its raw state because its needles reflect light, and astrophyllith is literally glittering with flash of copper or bronze. Its needles create a beautiful ornamental contrast with the light subsoil in which they are located. Astrophyllite is indeed a very decorative stone, so it is so popular especially in the production of jewelery, where it is mainly used in the raw state.
Azurite is an alkaline copper carbonate. It is a product of the oxidation of copper sulphides in the oxidation zones of copper deposits in carbonate rocks. Tabular, columnar, prismatic crystals, stalactites, concretions predominate. Tiny crystals form integral aggregates. Hardness 3.5 to 4. It is often found in combination with malachite (to which it is converted by oxidation over time), chrysocolla, cuprite, cerusite, smithsonite and other minerals. Thanks to its beautiful blue color, it is very popular among collectors. It is used in jewelry (most often in the form of cabochons) and is also used to make blue dye.
Brazilianite, whose name comes from his country of origin, Brazil, is definitely not one of the commonly available minerals. It is typically a yellow-green phosphate mineral that is most commonly found in phosphate-rich pectates. It occurs in the form of perfect crystals grouped in dwarfs, in pegmatites, often having the quality of gems. Hardness of Brazilianite is 5.5 Mohs scale. The color of brazilianity ranges from dark yellow-green to pale yellow. Brazilianite begins to lose color when heated to 200 ° C and becomes colorless when heated to 300 ° C.
Celestine is formed by precipitation directly from seawater or even during the consolidation of seabed, where in the rock there are spherical clays of celtic, sometimes with a cavity and well-defined crystals inside. Celestine, strontium sulphate, is similar to a similar barite, but in nature it is slightly less widespread than barite. It can be colorless, white, pale blue, yellowish, rarely red or brown. They consist of earthy, hollow, stalked, column-to-fibrous aggregates, concretions, and collectors of well-known columnar and tabular well-defined crystals, transparent and translucent, perfectly and well cleavable in two directions, on crystal-like surfaces glossy to matte.
Danburite is a mineral of the mineral class "silicates and germanates", with a hardness of 7 Mohs scale. It was first found in Danbury (hence its name), Connecticut, USA. Danburit is little known as a gem, but its popularity is growing. Its crystals have excellent purity and are thus very attractive for jewelry use. Danburite is most commonly found in clear, perfectly transparent crystals, but may be colored to light pink, greenish, white, gray or yellow, depending on the presence of other impurities.
Dolomite is very similar to mineral calcite. Calcium is composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), while the dolomite is calcium carbonate-copper (CaMg (CO3) 2). It's a crooked mineral.
Named by: Déodat Gratet de Dolomie. Most often they form granular, massive or ball aggregates, pseudomorphoses. Romboedra-shaped crystals have swollen surfaces and usually form chisels.
Dioptase is a mineral, copper silicate, crystallizing in the trigonal system. It forms short to long columnar crystals with a vault end, or occurs in granular to integral aggregates. Dioptase is an unusual mineral that is produced mainly in desert areas. It is very rare and occurs only in a few known sites in the world - in Congo, Namibia and Kazakhstan. Typical is its dark green color, for which it is very popular and sought after collectors. Interestingly, the dioptase crystals were used to adorn the Neolithic sculptures dating from around 7200 BC.
Eudialyte is a very rare exclusive mineral of nepheline syenites and associated pegmatites. Eudialyte is named after the Greek "eu" - well and "dialytos" - soluble, indicating its easy solubility in acids.
Translucent to translucent red (pyrope-like) to reddish-brown eudialytes can occur either as crystals or in the form of solid grains. But nicely shaped crystals are very rare. The most famous sites of eudialytes can be found on the Kola Peninsula in Russia, as well as in Greenland, Norway and Canada.
Eudialyte is most often cut into cabochons and used in jewelery.
Fluorite is a cubic mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. They are mostly crystals in the shape of a cube, more rarely octahedrons, sometimes the area of the rombic dockyard is quite often developed. Very common are combinations of these shapes. Skeletal crystals of octahedral habitat are known whose surfaces are covered by oriented increases of small crystals of fluorite with surfaces. Typical examples of small cubic crystals are arranged in one large osmistane with stepped surfaces formed by these complex cubes. Such increases in small crystals of fluorite, with various combinations of common shapes that grow to the vertices of the osmisthenes. Sometimes the crystals are clearly stretched according to one of the surfaces of the cube. The octahedral surfaces are usually uneven, matte; the edges of the cubes are smooth and glossy, but sometimes with grooves parallel to the edges of the cube or have a parquet-like arrangement.
As garnets (Hagones, 1250) we refer to the group of cubic minerals, non-silicates with a complicated chemical formula of the general form X3Z2 [SiO4] 3. The name comes from the Latin granatum malum - pomegranate. They generally consist of rhodododecahedric and hexaoctoedric crystals. Grained and compact aggregates are less common. There are individual grains or smoothed pebbles in the alluviums. The most famous varieties include Almandin, Grosular (light green to amber or deep brown), Hesonit (variety of grosular, honey yellow), Pyrope (blood red to black), Spessartin (dark red to brownish red), Uvarovit (emerald green). The most precious are the pyropes with the color change effect of alexandrite, in daylight and artificial lighting, very expensive are emerald green tsavorites from Tanzania, demantoids from Russia, cheaper are orange spessartins, sought after is rhodolite, rhodolith garnet, pyralmandine is a mixture of pyrope and almandine. raspberry colors. Indians and Romans used to use abundantly grosular, orange to honey hesonit, because they believed that he would turn away evil, gomedha stone, gomeda.
Hiddenite, as well as Kunzite, is a gemstone variety of mineral spodumen, most often light green to yellow-green in color.
Charoite is a mysterious stone that was discovered by the Russian geologists in the 1940s, but was first described in 1978. Why was it there? Although it is characterized by its lavender color with white, black and brown annealing, and its rich color is truly unusual because it is not transparent, it was initially underestimated and ignored by experts.
Interest grew up around 1978 when he became more interested in J.G. Rogov. After thorough research, it was found that Charoite is unique not only to the coloration that causes a high manganese content but also to another composition. It contains a total of 40 rare trace elements and minerals, some of which were even unknown until then.
The most precious stone of the world
Charoite is one of the world's most precious stones. The only locality in the world is Jakutsko (Yakutsk), or officially the Sasha Republic.
In Yakutsk there are several places where the Charoit can be found: the area of the Chara River (according to which the stone is also named), the Togo river basin, the Aldan shield, the East-Siberian region, the Danam and the Murum massif, for the time being, A world where a stone of such qualities could benefit. Rarely, the fact that the state is trying to protect its resources and allows it to harvest a maximum of 100 tonnes of Charoite a year is a rarity. The price is rising year after year as against the fact that no other bearing has been found so far and so the resources are shrinking. Accessibility to Charoite is difficult.
Chromdiopsidum is becoming increasingly popular, a beautifully colored stone, also known as the "Russian Emerald", originating from the Yakutsk site, belonging to the Diopsidum group.The name Diopsid is derived from the Greek word 'diopsis' which means' two types of vision or having two forms ". It is so named because, viewed from one side, the exhibit has one color, while it appears from different angles in different shades.
It appears on metamorphic deposits rich in calcium and chromium (just chromium causes a typical green color). In 1988, an inventory of gemstone chromium dioxide was discovered in eastern Siberia, so it is a gem that was only recently used. Due to its beautiful color its popularity and price is rising.
Chrysocolla is a complex copper silicate. It has the most common bright cyan (blue-green) color and its hardness is 2.5 to 7.0. It is located in the oxidation zone of copper ores. Associated minerals are quartz, limonite, azurite, malachite, cuprit and other secondary copper minerals.
If it is lighter, it may be mistaken for turquoise.
Chrysocolla is very well machined and has been a popular raw material in jewelry since ancient times.
The natural beauty of the combination of chrysocolla with malachite
Chrysopras is a green, translucent variety of chalcedony mineral. Of all the chalcedony varieties, this gemstone is valued most. The name comes from Greek (chrysos = golden). Typical apple green color (which varies from yellow-green to green grass) is caused by aqueous nickel silicates (or oxides) (eg, kerolite, pimelite). The color may fade in sunlight. Green-colored stones were among the most valuable and popular in ancient times. Chrysopras was already used by the Greeks and Romans. He was particularly impressed in the 14th century when Charles IV left it. to decorate the St. Wenceslas Chapel in Hradčany and also the chapel at Karlštejn. Newer is the decoration of Sanssouci Castle in Potsdam. It is used in jewelery for rings, earrings and brooches, for the production of smaller decorative items.
Iolit / cordierite is a mineral from the group of cyclosilicates rich in aluminum. Its crystals show pleochroism - from one point of view it is deep blue-violet, when the stone turns blue disappears completely and appears to be gray to yellowish smoke. The third color is less noticeable, mostly pale blue.
To a greater or lesser extent, the pleochroic majority of precious stones except those that crystallize in the cubic system. For most of them, pleochroism is not very noticeable, and a simple optical device, called dichroscope, is used to reveal it. With prominent, strong pleochroism, it can be found especially in some sapphires, tourmaline and non-burned tanzanite, but rarely as noticeable as in cordierite.
The color direction is given by the orientation of the crystal axis. Stones that have 2 colors are called dichroic, with 3 trichroic colors. At times when this phenomenon was not yet explored in detail, the cordierite was called dichroit, although it is actually trichroic. It is worth mentioning that it is also found in the Czech Republic (for example, in Šumava).
Jadeite is a monoclinic mineral, the chemical formula of Na (AlFe3 +) (Si2O6). According to Strunz classification 9.DA.25 - silicates from pyroxene group. The name of the mineral comes from the Spanish word piedra de ijada, which means kidney stone or lumbar stone for its alleged healing ability. The Spaniards began to encounter this mineral on the aggressive routes to Central America. Later, the name was abbreviated on jade, from which jadeite originated. It is formed during low-temperature high-pressure metamorphosis in sodium-rich serpentinite rocks, in eclogites, in jadeites, glaucophanites and occasionally in metagabras. Pseudomorphosis after jade, serpentine, is also known. Mineral is white, gray, green, gray-green, rarely blue to violet. The scratch is white, greasy to vitreous, it is opaque, but shines on the edges.
Jadeit is and has been widely used for the production of statuettes and small aesthetic items, as it is very easy to process. Jadeite Olmec, for example, made ritual items and jadeite was more valuable to them than gold and other gems.
The stone was used to make death masks, weapons, jewelry and jade pearls, stones and balls. The stones and balls embedded in the statues were the heart of the Aztecs, and in the mouth of the deceased they were a symbol of life-cycle renewal, rebirth. For the New Zealand Maori and their related Moriors from the Chatham Islands, jade and jade, known as pounamu, is a sacred stone used to make ancestral statues, ornaments, amulets, and in the past weapons. The best quality jade used for carving is the so-called imperial jade, which originates mainly from Burma and which began to reach China in the 18th century. Jadeite is sporadically found in Chan-era finds, but his fame begins in the 18th century when he began to replace the stones of the old era, nephrites from Taiwan, the Kun-Lun Mountains and Sayan or Mongolia. Jade is green, pink, gray-blue, white, black, yellowish and orange-brown, a crust of jade. The imperial jade is a highly sought after and valued stone in the field of Chinese culture, the price of which compares to the best emeralds and even surpasses them in color. In the Euro-American region, jade is not so popular, even though it has been more and more set in jewelry with diamonds since the Art Deco style. The emerald jade of emerald green is followed by other, albeit cheaper shades. In China, the imperial jade is also an investment stone. In Europe, jade is mistaken for jewels (jade, jade), vendors sell colored jade, serpentines, aventurines and other minerals instead of jade. This gives the impression of cheap and easy availability of gemstone jade of all colors. Cheaper, commercial raw material is used for carvings of statuettes and figurines. Burmese jade is the most precious, Kazakh and Ural jade followed after Burmese jade.
Amber is a light and fragile substance, a special form of carbonaceous mineral, sometimes ranked among minerals. At other times, it is classified as an organogenic sedimentary rock because it is a fossilized resin of some trees, a mineralized Tertiary coniferous resin, most often around 50 million years old (however, amber of up to 320 million years is known, ie from Paleozoic Carboniferous). The most common amber color is golden yellow, but varieties are completely transparent, red, coffee and white. Interestingly, the amber has still not been artificially produced even though its chemical composition and the expected process of formation are well known. Amber is of organic origin and has an amorphous structure. Its composition varies depending on the tree from which it comes, although all amber species contain terpenes or components that are common to hardened resins. If the amber is rubbed with wool, a negative charge of static electricity is generated. He described this characteristic of amber as early as the 6th century BC .. The production of jewelry and ornamental objects from amber has a long tradition since people have been processing them since the Stone Age. Amber jewelry and amulets were used by people in other cultures (ancient Greece, Rome, Maya and Inca civilizations), believed in their power and often used as a talisman or remedy. Amber also serves as a medium, preserving organisms (especially invertebrates) from past geological periods in fantastic detail. The oldest preserved amber with preserved insects comes from the Mesozoic Triassic period and is about 230 million years old.
Jasper is an opaque variety of chalcedony occurring in several color variants (red, green, yellow, brown ...). The main component is silicon dioxide with frequent opal admixtures, coloring then determines chlorite closures, iron, manganese and other elements. Since ancient times, the stone has been appreciated. Besides jewelery, it is also important in esoterics. Jasper is formed in rock cavities of various kinds as a result of the cooling of hot solutions, gases and vapors escaping from the cooling magma (filling cavities of basal and metaphoric almonds), which is formed at low temperatures as a precipitate of silicate solutions. In addition, contact metamorphosis of rocks of the appropriate composition may occur. The Greeks, the Romans and the Egyptians, valued him as a gem. Reliefs and intaglios were carved into the jasper. A large collection of carved jaspers, predominantly Ural, is found in the St. Petersburg Hermitage. Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and Hungary Rudolf II. the table was inlaid with many colors of jasper. This table was one of the seven wonders of the Renaissance.
Calcite is a kneeling mineral. Crystalline calcite originates primarily on hydrothermal veins of various origins, often forming massive fillings or crystals in the cavities. It occurs separately and together with many other minerals, common for example on red veins. On clear calcite, the specific optical property of calcite, a relatively high light bridging light, is well evident. The name calcite comes from the Latin "calx", which means "lime". This stone occurs in a large number of color variations. In ancient Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, and Rome, the so-called "golden onyx" was popular. The Romans made beautiful statues, mosaics, and so on. the Icelandic limestone was used by the Vikings - their voyages determined the position of the Sun in the sky covered with clouds.
Carneol is a semi-precious stone and a color variety of chalcedon (microcrystalline varieties of quartz). The orange-red carnelian discoloration causes the creole (Fe2O3 / hematite) to form, and has also been named after that color. It occurs all over the world as a filler of magma and sedimentary rocks, where they are poured out of silicic acid solutions. The most famous site was from ancient times in the deserts of Arabia and Egypt.
Crystal is a colorless quartz (SiO2) variety. It usually occurs in the form of crystals in a hexagonal crystal system with a hardness of 6.5-7.5 Mohs scale. It is formed like most silicates by crystallization from magma. Crystal is a widely used stone in the jewelry industry (mostly with paddles), in laser technology and radio engineering, in the manufacture of optical instruments and in the glass industry. It is popular as a collection stone. Crystal is a colorless variety of silica. Crystal consists of crystals and their coalescing. The more precious crystal formations are the “scepter crystal”. These are crystals that have been encapsulated by surrounding impurities during the formation of the crystal at lower levels and stopped its growth. Thus, crystal growth could only continue at a single point at the most active point-crystal top. Thanks to this, a scepter-shaped formation was created. However, this formation is rather characteristic of amethyst, where the reason is the growth of iron, which is an additive in crystal. . The most beautiful hairlines come from Brazil and mines in the Urals, Russia. A similar phenomenon occurs in citrine, where the structure is gaseous or water inclusions, and when illuminated against direct light, look like a "golden rain". At a certain stage of growth, crystal served as a basis for the growth of crystals of another mineral. The growing crystal then discarded some of the crystals and wrapped or absorbed the other crystals, thus becoming crystals in the enclosure, marking the crystal growth zone. Phantoms are also found in other minerals, such as calcite. People in the Neolithic have used crystal fragments as sharp spikes of arrows and spears. According to ancient legends, the gods drank wine only from crystal goblets. Therefore, in ancient Rome, crystal jugs and goblets were regarded as luxury items, and boasted only the richest and emperors. Rumor has it that Emperor Nero began to lose his power after he broke his collection of crystal goblets in a fit of anger
Quartz crystal is a colorless variety of silica (SiO2). It is mostly found in the form of crystals in the hexagonal crystal system with a hardness of 6.5-7.5 Mohs scale. It forms like most of the silicates by crystallizing from the magma. Crystal is a widely used stone in jewelery (mostly vrostlicemi), in laser technology and radiotechnics, for the manufacture of optical instruments and in the glass industry. He is popular as a collection stone. Crystal is a colorless silicon dioxide variety. Crystal is made up of crystals and their complexes. The rarer crystals are "scepter crystals". These are crystals that have been encapsulated by the surrounding impurities during the formation of the crystal at lower levels and stopped its growth. Thus, crystal growth can continue only at a single point, and at the most active peak-crystal point. Thanks to this, a scepter-shaped structure was created. However, this structure is more characteristic of amethyst, which is the reason for stopping the growth of iron, which is an additive in crystal. Crystal also forms hairy, which are crystals of crystal in which the rust vrostlice - according to its color this crystal is called Amor arrows or Venus's hair . The most beautiful hairy people come from Brazil and down in the Urals of Russia. A similar phenomenon occurs in the citrine where the structure is gaseous or water vrostlice and when lit up against direct light they look like "golden rain" .All the most beautiful and interesting body of crystal are so-called phantoms. At some stage of growth, crystal served as a basis for the growth of other minerals. The expanding crystalline crystal then dropped some of the crystals, and others wrapped or absorbed, thereby becoming the crystals part of the crystals, indicating the growth zone of the crystal. Phantoms also occur in other minerals, such as calcite. People in the Neolith used fragments of crystal as sharp arrows and spears. According to ancient legends, the gods drank wine only from crystal cups. That is why, in ancient Rome, crystal jugs and cups were considered to be luxury items, and only the richest and emperor were proud. It is said that Emperor Nero began to lose his power after he broke his collection of crystal glasses in a fit of anger
Azurite in granite, or K2 mineral, comes from the foot of the magical mountain K2, the Karakoram Mountains of Pakistan.
Azurite is a basic copper carbonate. The formula is Cu 3 (CO 3) 2 (OH) 2. The typical color is blue, according to which the mineral was called French mineralogist Francois Bendaut in 1824. The name comes from the Persian word "lazhward", blue.
Granites, also granites, are igneous rocks containing a substantial amount of quartz. Granites are usually bright, greyish or whitish, sometimes with a blue tint. Of course, yellow, pink and red species are also known. Granites are evenly omnidirectionally granular (eugranitic), sometimes porphyric. The structure is hypidiomorphically grainy. Nowadays, the term "granite" is used exclusively in professional terminology. The name comes from the Latin word granum, meaning "grain", a term used to refer to grainy, crystalline rocks.
Lemurian crystals are unique quartz crystals, pure and clear in the middle. Their unique hallmark is the horizontal "stripes" on one or more sides. It seems as if engraved by someone's hand, or rather a laser. Thanks to a thin layer of iron oxide, they can be colored slightly red. The only place where these crystals are found Originally, they were thought to come only from the Joaquim Felicio region of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, but were also found in the high mountain areas of Diamantina and Corinto.
Kunzit (as well as Hiddenit) is a variant of Spodumen mineral.
Kunzit was discovered in 1902, and was named after Tiffany & Co's main jeweler - George Frederick Kunz.
Most often it occurs in shades of light pink, but more vivid colors are possible and can achieve rare shades of vivid purple to purple. This is due to the content of small particles of manganese. When exposed to intense light, the color may fade over time, so it is better to protect both jewelry and crystals from light and store them in a case or box. And so, unfortunately, it is very often warming up to get a brighter color. Kunzite is pleochroic, which means it can change color by the angle you look at it.
Kunzit is one of the precious stones - it is widely used in jewelry and jewelery. Its hardness is 6.5 - 7 Mohs scale.
Cyanite (also called distene), the chemical formula of Al2SiO5, is a tri-clone mineral. Hardness 5.5 - 7 Mohs scale. The name of the mineral comes from the Greek word κυανος (kýanos) - blue, according to the color of the crystals. It is used as a raw material for the production of fireproof and acid resistant materials - insulators.
Thanks to its beautiful blue crystals, it is also popular with collectors. Sometimes it is also used as a precious stone (cabochons, facet cuts).
Labradorite ((Ca, Na) (Al, Si) 408) is a mineral from a group of feldspars. It belongs to a group of plagioclases and is typical of its multicolored luster. It is usually defined by an annotation content in the range of 50 to 70 percent. The characteristic location is located near Nain in the Labrador area of Canada, where it was found and first named by the Czech missionary, Father Adolf, in 1770. For its attractive appearance, it is sometimes used in the building industry for interior tiling. There is a striking iridescent (changing) game of metallic luster. This so-called labradorescence is caused by interference and mirroring on submicroscopic lamellae. This gloss is predominantly blue, purple and green, sometimes there are other colors. In rare cases, the gloss has the full color spectrum, such a decorative stone is called the spectrolite.
Lapis lazuli is a rock, a precious stone that has been valued since antiquity for its distinctive blue color. Lapis lazuli usually occurs as a composite of blue lazurit, furthermore of calcite, sodalite, pyrite, augite and other admixtures. It is abundant in Afghanistan, Russia near Lake Baikal and Chile. Most of it is found in the abundant deposits of pyritu.Lapis lazuli, also known as lazurit, in jewelery is very popular gorgeous blue stone. The best lapis lazuli is dark blue with tiny golden spots made of pyrite. With a bit of fantasy, we can imagine the quality lapis as a dark blue stone sprinkled with golden sequins. On the other hand, white limestone veins are clearly visible in lesser quality lapis. In general, it is possible to say that lapis lazuli is darker and contains visible grains of pyrite that shines golden in the sun, it is also better quality, rare and more expensive. In Chile lapis lazuli is considered a national stone. From a mythological point of view lapis is considered very a powerful stone. Some beauties even claim to have been used in traditional shamanic and witch rituals. Lapis was also used to decorate the golden postmortem mask of Tutankhamun.
Also known as "Dolphin Stone" or "Atlantis Stone", Larimar is one of the most precious semiprecious stones in the world. This fact is due to the fact that in the world there is only one site of this unique blue variety of pectolite that larimar is. Larimar is mined only in the Dominican Republic, in a very small mountainous region, the province of Barahona. That is why the price of the highest quality larimar stones is very high, ranging in the order of tens of dollars, up to hundreds of dollars in larimar jewelry!
A pattern of crystalline needles is often observed in Larimar. The blue color may vary in intensity from very light to green-blue to dark blue. However, the most desired color is sky blue.
Lodolite is a type of Quartz crystal with unique inclusions of many possible colors and types. No stone is ever the same.
Copper (the chemical mark Cu, Latin Cuprum) is a noble metal element of reddish color, used by humans since antiquity. The oldest evidence of the melting of this metal in primitive kilns, where they melted with stone slabs or dry dung, dates back to the 3rd millennium BC, from northern Mesopotamia. In the period of the Roman Empire, copper was mainly mined in Cyprus, therefore it was named the siprium (metal of Cyprus), later reduced to the sprue. The Czech name copper (and similarly in other Slavic languages) comes from the Old Persian, which called this metal honey. The territory of Persia (roughly today Iran, Afghanistan) was one of the oldest deposits of copper ore. It is characterized by very good thermal and electrical conductivity, is well mechanically processed and resistant to atmospheric corrosion. Copper is relatively rare in the Earth's crust. It is estimated to be 55 - 70 ppm (mg / kg). In sea water, its concentration is only around 0.003 milligrams per liter. It is believed that approximately 1 billion hydrogen atoms are thought to be present in the universe for one copper atom. Raw copper is found in nature, but rarely in large quantities, and therefore occurs predominantly in compounds. Elementary is found to a greater extent on the Lake of the North of North America. Most often we find it in the form of sulphides.
The name of the mineral comes from the Greek word malache denoting mallow and a deep green color.
Previously, malachite was referred to as less pronounced copper ore. It has been treated as a precious stone since ancient times. Already in ancient Egypt, he had carved stones, amulets, and other ornaments from it. It was also known by the ancient Greeks and Romans. Crushed was used as a dye in painting or as a make-up.
Meteorite is a smaller cosmic body (originally a meteoroid) that, due to favorable conditions, fell to the Earth's surface (or other planets). Meteor speeds in the atmosphere usually range from 11 to 72 km / s. Small bodies are used to designate micrometeorites. Most meteorites melt and evaporate when they pass through the Earth's atmosphere. Whether at least part of the body falls on the ground depends on several circumstances, the most important of which is the weight of the original meteoroid and the speed with which it entered the atmosphere (at a velocity of 11 km / s, a meteoroid of an original weight of 10 kg may also land on the ground). Another factor is the meteoroid structure: Iron meteorids (siderites) are less deflected when passing through the atmosphere, so they are more likely to fly to the ground. Broken chondritic meteors usually fall into smaller parts, which evaporate more easily; therefore only with a large input weight they may fall to the ground. The last major factor is the height at which the meteor ceased to shine. If it is more than 30 km above the ground, then it is very likely that the whole body has evaporated in the atmosphere.
Morganite, like emerald and aquamarine, is a beryllium. It was first identified in 1910 and the following year was named after George F. Kunz after the well-known financier, banker and passionate gem collector J. P. Morgan. It varies in color from pink to purple-pink, which is why it is sometimes called a pink emerald. Common shades include pale pink, purple, salmon or peach. The pink color causes the presence of manganese or cesium cations. Hardness on the Mohs scale: 7.5 - 8. Morganite is mainly used in the baking industry, where its color, purity, grinding and carat weight are considered. The most popular are pink and pink-purple morganites. But peach and salmon are also popular, as many jewelers consider untreated stones in these colors to be more valuable than those whose perfect color was created by artificial treatment. Almost all morgans stand out with soft pastel colors. Larger gems are characterized by more pronounced and richer shades. The most sought-after colors are pure pink, and rarely appear purple-pink Madagascar morganites, which are among the rarest, as their deposits are already mined. Morganit usually does not have visible inclusions with the naked eye and impresses with its unique purity. Inclusions are therefore rare, mostly liquid or biphasic. Inclusions in morganite resemble either hollow or fluid-filled needles or fingerprints. Due to the rare presence of visible inclusions, morganites "decorated" with small needles, which evoke raw silk, do not lose their value and collectors and goldsmiths often look for them. Not completely translucent gems are often carved or ground like cabochons. Morganit excels in distinct pleochroism - from pale to deep blue-pink shades - and must therefore be carefully oriented when grinding. Distinctive colors are not typical for this stone, so it is necessary to have gems relatively large so that jewelers achieve the best appearance of the stone when grinding. Morganit is ground into all standard shapes (especially as oval, cushion, emerald, pear and marquise), but there are also unique and unusual designs.
Moqui Marbles are iron-sandstone concretes of predominantly spherical shape, occurring in some locations in the Colorado plateau of the south and southeast of the Utah state. The title of these interesting stones is derived from the earlier name of the Indian Hopi-Moqui tribe. These are concretes of different shades of ocher, brown to dark brown depending on iron content. Concretions, usually 1-5 cm in length, have a spherical or lenticular shape, sometimes forming, after joining two or more balls, shapes of elongated tubes. The quartz mass of the beads is permeated by a hematite, which forms a solid "casing" of the concretion, while the center of the balls is filled with siliceous cement, often also with the addition of iron. The condition of these concretions was the presence of water. Iron, dissolved in groundwater, precipitated in the form of hematite and goethite and formed iron siliceous grains on the silica grains. The iron content in these specimens is derived from their hardness. Due to the long-term weathering and erosion of the sandstone massifs and subsequent sanding, these solid iron concretions gradually appeared on the surface.
Natural mussels from freshwater mussels. It is traditionally used by Indians and shamans in various rituals or fumigation. A small layer of sand or sea salt is placed on the bottom of the shell and a lighted herb or scented wood is placed on it and allowed to smolder. You can then spread the smoke with a bird pen or a fan. Attention: of course, be careful when handling and do not leave unattended.
Nephrite has been known to mankind ever since. It is highly resistant to scratches, shocks, and so on. For this reason, it was made not only by decorative objects or jewelery, but also by working tools. This remarkable stone was popular especially in Babylon and old China. Sumerians have said they can effectively deal with various unexpected life situations. The Chinese used it popularly in religious ceremonies.
A lot of people jade with jade. The fact is, however, that the jade is pyroxen while the jade is amphibious. Both of these stones, however, have essentially identical effects on the psychic and physical side of man.
Nuummite is a very rare metamorphic rock of volcanic origin. It was created about 3 billion years ago. It consists of amphibolic minerals of gedite and anthophyllite. It is named after the Nuuk area in Greenland where it was found. Nuummite is usually a black opaque color with golden strips of pyrite, pyrhotine and chalcopyrite. The sparkling color game is caused by its fibrous structure (alternating fiber layers). Changing the viewing angle or illumination creates a phenomenon called iridescence at Nuummith. Its only site is in Greenland. This rare mineral is often sought after by collectors and gemstones.
Obsidian is a type of volcanic glass, a rock formed as a result of magmatic activity, where the hot, acidic and viscous lava comes into contact with the cold environment and then quickly becomes stiff. The rock is very rich in SiO2 compounds and is a natural form of glass.
From the Palaeolithic and Neolithic, the obsidian was used to produce tools, mostly scrapers, spearguns or knives. The oldest archaeological find that demonstrates the use of obsidian falls into Mesopotamia about 9,000 years ago. In South America, it was used by the Indian tribes to protect them from evil forces, and to preserve processed items made from obsidian. They are attributed to this day by magical properties or therapeutic effects, but their occurrence has never been scientifically proven. With the development of metal processing, obsidian began to lose importance and began to use it as a decorative or ornamental stone in jewelery.
Olivine (peridot) is a diamond-shaped mineral with varying amounts of magnesium and iron, depending on the conditions of its occurrence. It is the iron that causes the green color of the stone. Olivine is formed by crystallisation from magma with a low silicon content. Named after the olive-green color, which combined the words olive and green (in English the word green), but his name was confused several times. The ancient Romans used the name of Topazos according to the island where they were mined, and the French jewelers later used the name peridot. Outside of the Earth, Olivine was also found on Mars (where he found and identified the Opportunity robot), and apparently also found in the cloak of the Asteroid.
Gemstone variety of olivine is called chrysolite - according to the Greek words chrysos = gold and lithos = stone. The hardness of the olivine is 6.5 to 7 Mohs scale. The most common is yellow-green, olive, yellow and brown. He has been used in Egypt since ancient times as a protective stone against spirits and negative energies.
Opal is a mineral, hydrogel with a fluctuating water content whose chemical formula is SiO2. n H2O. Water is usually represented here between one and three percent by weight but in some cases it can reach up to 20%. There are many varieties of opal in the world, such as expensive opal, opal fire, wood opal, or bush opal.  Opal is formed from the cooled post-volcanic solutions by the precipitation of siliceous substances. A typical color gamble, the so-called Opal Opal Opal, is created by light interference at the interface of microscopic layers of opaque gel beads.
The opener genesis is not fully satisfactorily explained. It is believed that opals arise at elevated temperatures and pressures from silicates, which can either be released from organic sources such as diatomaceous earths, needles of marine fungi, or from inorganic sources such as silicate minerals or quartz. The siliceous component slowly dissolves in the alkaline environment and when the ambient conditions change to acidic and at the same time reduces the pressure there is a re-precipitation of quartz in the form of opal. Because of the not very strong atomic bond between the oxygen and silicon atoms, the opals are relatively unstable minerals that are easily damaged. When in contact with other material, they often scratch or fall into smaller bodies when dropped. Some types of opal are able to change their color depending on temperature, even when in contact with human heat. They have the ability to bind water and dirt, which can also change their color when exposed to water.
Dendritic opal (moss opal, merlinite) - white, opaque and is permeated by a network of fine black dendrites (oxides or hydroxides of iron or manganese). Opal is a mineral, a hydrogel with fluctuating water content, whose chemical formula is SiO2. n H2O. Water is present most often between one and three percent by weight, but in some cases it can reach up to 20%.
Peruvian Opal is the national stone of Peru and it is relatively rare and can only be found in the Andes mountains. This gemstone is usually coloured blue to blue-green. Most jewellers describe it as the colour of the Caribbean Sea. These stones may enclose dark inclusions that look like ferns. Another colour is pink.
Petalite is a mineral from the group of layered silicates (phyllosilicates), chemically LiAlSi4O10. It was discovered by Brazilian scientist J.B.A.e Silva at the end of the 18th century. Its name is derived from the Greek expression for the leaf –petalon. It is clear, white, pink, gray or white with different shades. Its colorless variety is used in jewelery. The most important sites include the Minas Gerais site in Brazil, then we can find it in Western Australia, Namibia, Zimbabwe or Canada.
In the splendid stone of Pietersite, the very essence, strength and beauty of the summer thunderstorm is literally bewildering, for in pietersitu you see brilliant flashes of golden light in the swirling clouds in the deepest blue color. Pietersit is also known as the Lightning Storm or Stone of Storm because it is charged with a strong energy that is almost palpable.
Pyrite (also iron pyrite or ferrous iron, ferric chemical disulfide) is a very plentiful mineral and important iron ore. Usually it has a golden color, which is sometimes mistaken for gold, so sometimes it's called gold fools or cat gold. Often, however, they may appear with a greenish tinge, or metallic blue, red and green coatings, which are professionally called start colors. It is the most widespread sulfide in the earth's crust at all. The name pyrite comes from Greek and is derived from the word fire, because sparks often fly from it. Its chemical name is iron disulfide. Most often, it is grainy, lumpy, ingrained, but occasionally it can also be found in the form of radially rays, tubers or kidney-like aggregates. Often there are well-constrained crystals in the shape of a cube. Gold is recognized by a different scratch, which has blackness and is not dull. Compared to chalcopyrite, it has a higher hardness. Pyrite exposed to outdoor influences is converted to limonite and sulfuric acid or sulphate. When hammering, it is possible to feel the characteristic smell of sulfur and see the sparks.
Rhodonite is a mineral belonging to the group of pyroxenoids (substances very similar to pyroxenes). It is characterized by its pinkish color and, due to the difficulty of finding it, is also relatively rare. Extremely rare are crystals, which are bright pink-red "cherry" and grow to a size of up to 20 cm. It was named in 1819 after Christoph Friedrich Jasch from the Greek word "ρόδον = rose", which pointed to its specific color.
Rodonite is cut like a precious stone.
Rhodochrosite is a raspberry red mineral (due to the presence of manganese), often with white streaks. Thanks to the hardness of the 3.5 - 4 Mohs scale, it is more of a softer mineral, but it is still very popular in jewelry. It is formed in hydrothermal veins and in transformed or sedimentary manganese deposits. It usually occurs in solid, granular or grape form.
RUBY IN ZOISITE - ANYOLITE - can be understood as a separate variety of zoisite or as a special metamorphic rock (however, it is not accepted as a rock). It consists of light green zoisite, dark green pargasite and ruby. It was first discovered in 1954 near Longido in Tanzania and the name was derived from the Maasai word "anyoli", which literally means green. Ruby is a pink to red gemstone consisting mainly of the mineral corundum with an admixture of chromium causing color.
Rosequartz is a translucent to transparent variety of quartz with pink color. Usually they do not form crystals (if they are, so long as their length does not exceed 1 cm), they occur in the form of massive aggregates. The pink color complements the traces of manganese and the milky appearance of the needle-like inclusion rutile. Crystals of rose quartz are very rare; it is usually in the form of integral pieces that can be cut or cut in the form of lentils or beads. Transparent material is rare; rosary is usually turbid or cracked, partly because it is brittle. Closures of rutile in rosin may create an asterisk effect when the stone is polished in the shape of a lens. From an esoteric point of view, it promotes love and tenderness, and helps in shyness. It also states that it develops mental creativity and revives fantasy, helps with neuroses and anxiety states.
Sagenite is a variety of rutile, whose acicular crystals form lattice proportions in biotite or quartz.
It is also known as "Venus' Hair". It is used in jewelery as a gemstone.
Sapphire (Hebrew name) is a single crystal of alumina (Al2O3), a mineral called corundum. It occurs either as a natural gem or is artificially manufactured for a variety of different applications, such as its hardness on glass and watch bearings.
While corundum consists of pure alumina, sapphires always contain an admixture of other elements (iron, chromium, copper, magnesium, etc.) which give it a blue, red, yellow, pink, magenta, orange or greenish color. Among the sapphires are included all the gems, which are varieties of corundum - except red - called ruby.
Apart from the blue sapphire, the most valuable sapphire is the "padparascha" - a salmon-colored sapphire, which is often confused with orange and pink sapphire.
Selenite is a fibrous, translucent form of gypsum. The fissure surfaces are glassy to pearly shiny. It is precisely from his "lunar" gloss that his name selenite is derived, according to the Greek goddess Selene. Gypsum, chemically calcium sulfate (CaSO4), is a widely distributed mineral. Most of the gypsum originated in the distant past when seawater dries in shallow bays and lagoons. In addition to gypsum positions, deposits of rock salt or anhydrite have also been formed in this way. Along with these minerals, calcite precipitated from sea water, the sediments, often full of fossil remains of various fauna and flora, formed of a rock called limestone. Among the most famous selenite deposits are Morocco.
The seraphinite stone is a gemstone variety of the minerals clinochlor belonging to the mica-like chlorite group. This beautiful and precious gemstone is found in this form only on the only world site in the area of Lake Baikal in eastern Russia. Serafinit has a dark green to light gray-green color, in which the fine fibers of white shiny annealing. With proper crystallization, pearl structures of soft feathers of angel wings appear
Skapolite consists of several minerals - sodium and calcium silicates, with varying chemical composition. The crystalline structure of the scapolites is represented by sodium, calcium, potassium, iron, chlorine, fluorine and others. Skapolites are usually white or light green, yellow, orange, pink, purple, or blue. They are opaque to translucent or even transparent, glass-glossy. Gemstone quality jewels are also used in jewelery.
Sunstone is a kind of dull, translucent, sometimes even transparent feldspar. Due to the small platelet mineral inclusions within the stone (usually those of copper, hematite or goethite) that produce bright metallic flashes, we can see an optical phenomenon called "aventurescence." and transparent with inclusions. The world's best-known sites include the USA, Mexico, Tanzania, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, but caution is needed when shopping, sun stone ranks among rare minerals and precious stones, and is often confused with cheaper merchants synthetic avanturine.
Emerald is the most famous and most valuable variety of beryl mineral, with a characteristic deep green color. It is due to the chromium content in the structure.
It is used in jewelry as a precious stone (facet cuts, cabochons). The most famous emerald jewelry is the Spanish Inquisition Necklace, Hooker's Emerald Brooch and the Andean Royal Crown.
The emerald (emerald) was first used in ancient Egypt and was one of the favorite stones in the Middle Kingdom, under the Ptolemaic and Queen Cleopatra. In Sanskrit, the term Emerald means marakata - the overcoming of difficulties. Indians divided their emeralds from Pakistan (Swat Valley) and Rajasthan into shades by caste. The emerald was supposed to be a stone of wisdom, prosperity, practical logic and business fitness (buddha-ratna) for ancient thinkers. For the Persian scholars, the emerald was the cornerstone of eternal life in paradise. The Romans also greatly appreciated the emerald, Plinius the Elder highlights his color.
The most beautiful and most expensive emeralds come from Colombia. Emeralds are also found in Brazil, Africa (Queen Cleopatra's mines in Egypt are well known), Russia or India.
Spinels are popular jewelery stones, which with their beauty equalize sapphires and ruby.
Super7 (Superseven, Sacred Seven, Melodystone) is a transparent to opaque stone that can have several colors: from brown, through orange and purple to red. This precious stone is composed of a different ratio of 7 stones: bark, amethyst, sagenite (rutile in crystal), goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz and cacoxen. The very different ratios of these stones give rise to the unique Super 7 mineral color.
The location of this unique piece can be found in Brazil and the United States. Super Seven is even more unique because its site is almost exhausted and stone is available on the market only in limited quantities.
One of the major and very important precious stones in Super 7 is Cacoxen. Kakoxen is a rare minerals group of phosphates that has been known since 1825 and has been described just in the Czech Republic in the Hrbek mine.
It is widely used in jewelery.
Shungite is a nonporous polymineral carbon rock that has been named after its location, the Karelian village of Shunga on the shore of Lake Onega, where Shungit was first discovered.
Shungite is an opaque black stone with a more or less pronounced metallic luster. Shungit is about 2 billion years old. It is a non-graphitized, almost pure, non-crystalline carbon probably formed from microscopic algae. The site is located in Karelia, north-west Russia. In the area of Karelia, there were now no longer existing Shungit baths, founded in the 18th century by the Russian Tsar Peter the Great, where mainly children were treated.
Shungite has sorption ability, which is lower than that of activated carbon. Shungite is known to purify water, absorb the harmful substances contained, and at the same time enrich water with healthy trace elements. Shungite contains a high proportion of the rare form of carbon, fullerene, which acts as an antioxidant and an excellent natural filter.
ELITE SHUNGITE - is considered a mineralogical rarity. It contains 90 to 98% carbon and 3 to 4 times more fullerenes than regular shungite.
Ruby is a pink to red gem consisting mainly of corundum (Al2O3) mineral with chromium coloring. The degree of hardness on the Mohs scale is 9. Among the largest deposits of rubies are mainly Africa, Asia (Burma), Australia, Greenland, Madagascar. The oldest deposits of rubies are alluvial rivers of south-western Sri Lanka (Kaliganga River) with the old center of Ratnapura. Rubies are in demand magical and jewelery minerals. Their color is orange-red, raspberry, faint red, deep red, red, like blood - also known as "pigeon blood" - so colored rubies are the most precious! Ruby is one of the most valuable gemstones whose value can sometimes even exceed the price of roughly the same size diamonds.
This beautiful blue-violet stone was discovered in Tanzania by a group of indigenous people - the Masai. Some of the shepherds have noticed interesting stones that become blue when exposed to high temperatures, such as a fire or a lightning strike. The masseuses believed that tanzanite was the symbol of birth, so this gem became a favorite gift for the birth of the first child.
Since its discovery in 1967, Tanzanite has been excitedly celebrated as the "20th Century Gemstone." Tiffany & Co, who also chose Tiffany & Co, was named after the site of its only site - East Tanzania. Discovered by native indigenous people, and later by Tiffany representatives who first recognized Tanzanite as a gemstone.
Tektite is a rock formed by the impact of an extraterrestrial body (meteorite) on the Earth's surface. During the impact, a huge amount of energy is released within a short period of time, which is converted into heat, resulting in metamorphic processes during which the original rocks are transformed into a new rock - tektite. Tektite has a predominantly glassy structure and can be compared to natural glass or obsidian.
Late magmatic and postmagmatic mineral of acidic magmatites with increased content of Al and F. It occurs as a rock-forming mineral in autometamorphic tin-bearing granites and quartz veins in their vicinity, in granite pegmatites, less often elsewhere. Resistant to weathering, boulders can be found in alluvium. They form perfectly limited crystals and their drusen. The crystals are very rich in shapes and tend to be more or less columnar, vertically grooved. Hardness 8 Mohs scale. Topaz can be found in a wide range of colors - colorless, light to darker brown, light pink, light blue, champagne, golden (Imperial topaz). Due to its hardness, it is quite popular in jewelry.
Tugtupit is a very rare mineral, with a hardness of 4 Tugtupit-Na8 (Cl2) (BeAlSi4O12) 2. Luminescence under UV light pink. Tugtupit is used as an expensive stone. Only two locales are known - Greenland-Tugtup and Russia-Kola, where tugtupit occurs in unsightly form with imperfect color. Minerals named after the Tugtup site in Greenland.
The Eskimo legend says lovers can cause their love to make the stone glow red as fire, and the power of its glow will be the same as the power of their love.
Tourmalines are a group of archer minerals - cyclic silicates. Elbaites (colored tourmalines) - are the widest and most famous group, and it consists mainly of jewelry stones. These include: rubellite, indigolite, verdelite, paraíba, achroite, melon tourmaline, olenite, rossmanite. Tourmalines are most often found in igneous rocks. It occurs over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, both in the Earth's upper mantle (70-80 km) and at a depth of only a few kilometers.
Scoryl (black tourmaline), chemical formula NaFe2 + 3Al6 (BO3) 3Si6O18 (OH) 4, is a trigonal mineral from the group of tourmaline. The name is probably based on where it first appeared: the municipality of Zschorlau, the Land of Saxony, Germany.
Usually black and completely opaque scoryl can rarely be brown-black, blue-black or even blue. He delivers iron and sodium in color. It is found in different types of rocks.
The crystals are prismatic, needle-like, always grooved. It also forms granular, compact, stalk-to-fiber aggregates, arranged irregularly or radially (turmaline sun).
Tourmaline is the name of Indian turamals, "covered with dust". Turmaline is piezoelectric and attracts particles of dust and ash. The Indians knew tourmalines from Hinduk and Sri Lanka. It is the most complex silicate in nature. Zen-Buddhist Japanese masters regarded him as an immovable living being. Brahmanism identified the tourmaline with the shivalinga, the pillar of the absolute glow of Shiva, the King of Yogis.
Tiger Eye is a mineral, ranked among precious stones. It is a quartz (SiO2) variety whose color and properties are influenced by the addition of minerals containing iron oxides and hydroxides such as goethite or limonite. Mineral tiger eye is formed as a result of weathering from a similar, but darker, blue-colored mineral falconiho eye. The original mineral is riebeckite from the amphibole group, named after German traveler Emil Riebeck. A "tiger eye" with an appropriate optical effect, imitating the eye of a beast or a predator, is formed by replacing crocidolite (asbestos) fibers with semitransparent chalcedony (quartz) or iron hydroxides in the original mineral. The most famous deposits are found in Africa, India, Myanmar or Australia.
Turquoise is a matte blue-green mineral, chemically tetrakis (phosphate) tetrakis (phosphate) octahydroxide, or CuAl6 (PO4) 4 (OH) 8.4H2O. It was known by many names, but it was the name of a turquoise that came from the French turques, which was the name for the Turks because this stone was originally brought from Turkey to Europe from the historical Persian deposits. Pliny the elder named this mineral as Callait and the Aztecs known it as Chalchihuitl. It is a secondary mineral formed in the surface of the rocks rich in water and with an increased content of copper and phosphorus in sediments, especially in sandstones. Magma origin is in the volcanoes rich in the cavities they like to fill.
It is a very rare and valuable mineral that has been used as a gem and decorative stone for thousands of years. Its popularity owes its extraordinary color, which is caused by the admixture of copper. The Aztecs placed turquoise together with gold, quartz, malachite, jadeite, coral and seashells into probably ceremonial mosaic objects such as masks (some with a human skull as a base), knives and shields. Natural resins, asphalt and wax were used to connect turquoise to base material, which was usually wood, but also used bones or shells. In Persia, turquoise has been a national stone for millennia. It was mainly used for the decoration of buildings (for example: to the bumper from the turbans), mosques and other important buildings inside and outside. Persian style and use of turquoise was later brought to India. Its influence can be seen on gold jewelry (along with rubies and diamonds) and in buildings such as Taj Mahal. The Persian turquoise had often engravings with pious words in Arabic, which were then inlaid with gold. Egyptian use of turquoise goes deep into the past of the first civilizations, if not earlier. Probably the most known pieces of turquoise are those that were discovered from Tutankhamen's tomb. It is also decorated with rings and necklaces, all with gold. The jewel was processed into beads that were used as a filler. They often carved it into a skaraba motif, accompanied by carnolet, lapis lazuli and colored glass. The turquoise was associated with the goddess Hathor. He was so popular with old Egyptians that he became the first gem to imitate glazed ceramics.
Vesuvianite (Idokras) was named after the famous Vesuv volcano. It was first described with it - specifically in 1759 by the German mineralogist A. G. Werner. Vesuvianite is a complex alumosilicate that crystallizes in a square system. It occurs in many color variants - green, yellow, brown, red or white.
Smoky quartz is a variety of quartz (silicon dioxide) that is stained with an admixture of aluminum, sodium and lithium. The dark brown to black, almost opaque variety of quartz is called morion, the boundary between the smolder and the morion is debatable. The smoky quartz is used in the goldsmithing and healing industries. They are attributed to soothing and cleansing effects. Mohs's hardness scale has a hardness of 7. The typical shape of the crystal is a six-pronged prism with two crowns in which prism surfaces are grooved horizontally. Typically, however, twinning or growth occurs in polycrystals, but we also encounter monocrystals.
Smoky is a variety of quartz (silica) that is colored an admixture of aluminum, sodium, and lithium. Rutile is a mineral usually brown, reddish brown, black or gold in color. The most common form, which is known to the general population, are small needles, grown in, for example, crystal or smoky.