Emerald is the most famous and most valuable variety of beryl mineral, with a characteristic deep green color. It is due to the chromium content in the structure.
It is used in jewelry as a precious stone (facet cuts, cabochons). The most famous emerald jewelry is the Spanish Inquisition Necklace, Hooker's Emerald Brooch and the Andean Royal Crown.
The emerald (emerald) was first used in ancient Egypt and was one of the favorite stones in the Middle Kingdom, under the Ptolemaic and Queen Cleopatra. In Sanskrit, the term Emerald means marakata - the overcoming of difficulties. Indians divided their emeralds from Pakistan (Swat Valley) and Rajasthan into shades by caste. The emerald was supposed to be a stone of wisdom, prosperity, practical logic and business fitness (buddha-ratna) for ancient thinkers. For the Persian scholars, the emerald was the cornerstone of eternal life in paradise. The Romans also greatly appreciated the emerald, Plinius the Elder highlights his color.
The most beautiful and most expensive emeralds come from Colombia. Emeralds are also found in Brazil, Africa (Queen Cleopatra's mines in Egypt are well known), Russia or India.